The invention aims to provide an extract of echinodermata polar glycolipids and application thereof. The extract is used for preparing food drugs capable of promoting and improving neural differentiation, and has the effect of promoting the development of neural systems or preventing neural diseases. Sea cucumber, sea urchin and starfish polar glycolipids are extracted and purified, and act on neural cells; the results show that the extract of the three echinodermata polar glycolipids can obviously improve the differentiation rate of the neural cells and has an obvious effect of promoting and improving neural differentiation. Therefore, the extract of echinodermata polar glycolipids can serve as a compound or auxiliary material to prepare a product cooperatively. The preparation method of the extract of echinodermata polar glycolipids in the invention is low in cost and relatively simple in operation method; cell experiments show that the obtained extract of echinodermata polar glycolipids has a good effect of promoting neural development, and can be used for developing safe and effective food or drugs for improving the development of immature individual neural systems and preventing neurodegenerative diseases.